In landscape urbanism, the city is considered as an ecosystem. It is the combination of landscape infrastructure, functional infrastructure and social needs of the city. Buildings and infrastructure are the continuation of the landscape or the surface of the ground. As the thickened ground, landscape is not only the park, garden or vegetation, but also the ecological infrastructure and multifunctional public infrastructure which provide open-endless spaces and performative medium.
1.1 Water in Landscape
The most commonly and enduring elements in cities are usually associated with landscape-related: such as geography, topography, climate, river and harbor. It could be the existences of a relationship between the urban infrastructure and terrain or hydrology of the city indicate that manifests primarily in the creation of a network of open spaces and water systems (Waldheim, 2010). So we consider that as a basic framework for the water system of urban and regional green channel, the use of natural water to design ecological processes, including rainwater harvesting, adjust drought, water purification, provide a variety of habitats, etc. Then, this ecological landscape is on a substrate having a variety of recreational opportunities to create a variety of experiences to create space and enhance ecosystem biodiversity.
1.2 Transports for Landscape
The establishment of landscape infrastructure is the biggest challenge seemingly ordinary urban transport facilities. Due to its specificity with complex functional requirements, this area was considered as the ignorance of public space. As an integral part of the cities, the roads, highways and car parking have to meet the requirements of public spaces (Corner, 2006). Moreover, these will obviously have connection with public transports, pedestrian systems, water systems, public utilities and ecological systems. The quality of combination could have direct effects to public spaces. The importance of transport infrastructures is not only the high efficiency of transport systems, but also the ability to motivate the multifunction of public spaces.
1.3 City as Landscape
The landscape of the city has been described as three models. Recalling the history of the city, the first model appeared in the Neolithic agricultural era, in the form of a narrow pattern to the city center is surrounded by fortifications. With the development of the industrial revolution, the core-like structure constraint is broken, spread the center of the city to replace a relaxed second model, we organized the geometry of urban planning, such as a square grid, and the beam axis of the city network, with the city emphasized endlessly outward spread bound center and periphery to bring. However, it is always have problems of the connection of different big areas. The third model is from the post-industrial era, which is an open, compact, versatile, small community of more urban centers called organic city model. Dynamics of urban growth and change was groups, interpreted as large-scale ecological interactions regional waters and multi-biological networks. The cities are considered as the extension of the natural ground. The gap between the urban and rural became obscure (Koolhaas, 1994).
Landscape is the carrier of a variety of natural processes; these processes are supported by the existence and continuation of life. At the same time, landscape is also a variety of functions “carrier”, it has spawned and the coordination between the natural environment and infrastructure integration and mutual exchange flow interface.
Corner, J. (2006) “Terra Fluxus”, The Landscape Urbanism Reader, pp.21-34
Koolhaas, R. (1994) “The generic city, and Whatever happened to urbanism?”, The
Urban Design Reader, 2nd Edition, pp.358‐372
Waldheim, C. (2010) “Landscape as urbanism”, The Urban Design Reader, 2nd Edition, pp.534‐543